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Mast cells

These connective tissue cells are widely distributed in the oral mucosa. They are round or Ovoid with small centrally placed nucleus. Cytoplasm contains granules rich in histamine, heparin and serotonin that have important role in allergic reactions. These cells can be seen in sections stained by toluidine Blue as cells filled with purple violet coloured coarse granules. Connected with inflammation and immune response.
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Plasma cells

Plasma cells 


Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes and are specialized for the synthesis of antibodies there by they impart resistance to the  body against diseases. They are Ovoid in shape with basophilic cytoplasm and eccentric oval or round nucleus. The nucleus show chromatin condensation in a radiating pattern giving rise to a cart wheel appearance. Seen in connective tissue of oral mucosa.

Hematoxylin and eosin staining

Hematoxylin and eosin staining 


These staining is used routinely in histopathological laboratories as it has ability to demonstrate a wide range of cells and tissue components and allows very detailed view of the tissue. This staining technique reveals organization or disorganization of the cells or tissues and also the abnormalities such as nuclear changes. Widely used in medical diagnosis and still remains as the gold standard for diagnosis.

Periodic acid schiff staining

Periodic acid schiff staining 


It is most popular staining techniques used in histopathological laboratories to demonstrate glycin or mucin. This special stain is used to demonstrate the basement membrane as schiff reagent used in this technique reacts with glycoprotein present in the basement membrane separating the epithelial compartment from connective tissue. When this is used glycogen and various glycoprotein take up majenta Colour and nucleus stain blue.

Fibroblasts

Fibroblasts 


Fibroblasts are Ovoid or star shaped cells with multiple cytoplasmic processes. The cells are large round and vesicular or open face nucleus and abundant cytoplasm exhibiting slight basophilia indicating that they are highly active in protein synthesis. Fibroblasts are arranged parallel to collagen fibres.
They are synthetic cells that produce collagen fibres and ground substances.
They help in the remodeling of the connective tissue.

Masson's Trichrome staining

Masson's Trichrome staining 



This trichrome stain is used for the differential staining of collagen and muscle fibres. When this stain is used for the staining purpose the cytoplasm, muscles and erythrocytes stain red while collagen take up blue color and nuclei blue or black.

Ameloblast and odontoblast

Ameloblast and odontoblast 





Ameloblast are enamel forming cells with differentiate from cells of inner enamel epithelium of enamel organ. Columnar shape with approximately 40 micrometer in length and diameter 4.5 micrometer. Shows reversal of polarity with nucleus located at proximal end. Odontoblast are cell forming Dentin.

Van Gibson's staining

Van Gibson's staining 



This is a special type of staining technique used to demonstrate collagen. When paraffin embedded tissue sections are stained using this method, collagen takes up red color, nucleus blue or black and other tissues appear yellowish in color.